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Welcome To Croatia

Here you will find the latest information, sourced from the CIA World Factbook and other public domain references around the Internet.

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Introduction Croatia
The lands that today comprise Croatia were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the close of World War I. In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became a federal independent Communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision, the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
Geography Croatia
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
total: 56,542 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
water: 128 sq km
Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro (north) 241 km, Serbia and Montenegro (south) 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, gypsum, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
arable land: 26.09%
permanent crops: 2.27%
other: 71.65% (2001)
Irrigated land:
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
People Croatia
4,495,904 (July 2005 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 378,615/female 359,231)
15-64 years: 67% (male 1,497,355/female 1,514,993)
65 years and over: 16.6% (male 283,460/female 462,250) (2005 est.)
Median age:
total: 39.97 years
male: 38.01 years
female: 41.76 years (2005 est.)
Population growth rate:
-0.02% (2005 est.)
Birth rate:
9.57 births/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Death rate:
11.38 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Net migration rate:
1.58 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2005 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
total: 6.84 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 74.45 years
male: 70.79 years
female: 78.31 years (2005 est.)
Total fertility rate:
1.39 children born/woman (2005 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
200 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
less than 10 (2001 est.)
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Croat 89.6%, Serb 4.5%, other 5.9% (including Bosniak, Hungarian, Slovene, Czech, and Roma) (2001 census)
Roman Catholic 87.8%, Orthodox 4.4%, other Christian 0.4%, Muslim 1.3%, other and unspecified 0.9%, none 5.2% (2001 census)
Croatian 96.1%, Serbian 1%, other and undesignated 2.9% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German) (2001 census)
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.5%
male: 99.4%
female: 97.8% (2003 est.)
Government Croatia
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
local short form: Hrvatska
former: People's Republic of Croatia, Socialist Republic of Croatia
Government type:
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Administrative divisions:
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 8 October (1991); note - 25 June 1991 is the day the Croatian Parliament voted for independence; following a 3-month moratorium to allow the European Community to solve the Yugoslav crisis peacefully, Parliament adopted a decision on 8 October 1991 to sever constitutional relations with Yugoslavia
adopted on 22 December 1990; revised 2000, 2001
Legal system:
based on civil law system
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivo SANADER (since 9 December 2003); Deputy Prime Ministers Jadranka KOSOR (since 23 December 2003) and Damir POLANEC (since NA February 2005)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the parliamentary Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 16 January 2005 (next to be held January 2010); the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president and then approved by the Assembly
election results: Stjepan MESIC reelected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 66%, Jadranka KOSOR (HDZ) 34%
Legislative branch:
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (152 seats; note - one seat was added in the November 2003 parliamentary elections; members elected from party lists by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Assembly - last held 23 November 2003 (next to be held in 2007)
election results: Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; number of seats by party - HDZ 66, SDP 34, HSS 10, HNS 10, HSP 8, IDS 4, Libra 3, HSU 3, SDSS 3, other 11
note: minority government coalition - HDZ, DC, HSLS, HSU, SDSS
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the Assembly
Political parties and leaders:
Croatian Bloc or HB [Ivic PASALIC]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Anto KOVACEVIC]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Anto DJAPIC]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Vladimir JORDAN]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC] (in 2005 party merged with Libra to become Croatian People's Party-Liberal Democrats or NS-LD [Vesna PUSIC]); Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Ivan CEHOK]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LS [Zlatko BENASIC]; Party of Liberal Democrats or Libra [Jozo RADOS] (in 2005 merged with HNS); Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Neven JURICA
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph FRANK
embassy: 2 Thomas Jefferson, 10010 Zagreb
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
Economy Croatia
Economy - overview:
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from a mild recession in 2000 with tourism, banking, and public investments leading the way. Unemployment remains high, at about 14 percent, with structural factors slowing its decline. While macroeconomic stabilization has largely been achieved, structural reforms lag because of deep resistance on the part of the public and lack of strong support from politicians. Growth, while impressively about 4% for the last several years, has been achieved through high fiscal and current account deficits. The government is gradually reducing a heavy back log of civil cases, many involving land tenure. The EU accession process should accelerate fiscal and structural reform.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$50.33 billion (2004 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
3.7% (2004 est.)
GDP - per capita:
purchasing power parity - $11,200 (2004 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 8.2%
industry: 30.1%
services: 61.7% (2004 est.)
Labor force:
1.71 million (2004 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture 2.7%, industry 32.8%, services 64.5% (2004)
Unemployment rate:
13.8% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line:
11% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 3.4%
highest 10%: 24.5% (2003 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
29 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.5% (2004 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):
28.6% of GDP (2004 est.)
revenues: $14.14 billion
expenditures: $15.65 billion, including capital expenditures of NA (2004 est.)
Public debt:
41.7% of GDP (2004 est.)
Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
2.7% (2004 est.)
Electricity - production:
12.51 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 33.6%
hydro: 66%
nuclear: 0%
other: 0.4% (2001)
Electricity - consumption:
15.2 billion kWh (2002)
Electricity - exports:
406 million kWh (2002)
Electricity - imports:
3.966 billion kWh (2002)
Oil - production:
21,000 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil - consumption:
89,000 bbl/day (2001 est.)
Oil - exports:
Oil - imports:
Oil - proved reserves:
93.6 million bbl (1 January 2002)
Natural gas - production:
1.76 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - consumption:
2.84 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - imports:
1.08 billion cu m (2001 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves:
34.36 billion cu m (1 January 2002)
Current account balance:
$-1.925 billion (2004 est.)
$7.845 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Exports - commodities:
transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Italy 23%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 13.4%, Germany 11.4%, Austria 9.6%, Slovenia 7.6% (2004)
$16.7 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.)
Imports - commodities:
machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Italy 17.1%, Germany 15.5%, Russia 7.3%, Slovenia 7.1%, Austria 6.9%, France 4.4% (2004)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.563 billion (2004 est.)
Debt - external:
$26.4 billion (2004 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
ODA $166.5 million (2002)
Currency (code):
kuna (HRK)
Currency code:
Exchange rates:
kuna per US dollar - 6.0358 (2004), 6.7035 (2003), 7.8687 (2002), 8.34 (2001), 8.2766 (2000)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Communications Croatia
Telephones - main lines in use:
1.825 million (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.553 million (2003)
Telephone system:
general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: country code - 385; digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project, which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
1.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)
1.22 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
29,644 (2004)
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
9 (2000)
Internet users:
1.014 million (2003)
Transportation Croatia
total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (984 km electrified) (2004)
total: 28,344 km
paved: 23,979 km (including 455 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,365 km (2002)
785 km (2004)
gas 1,340 km; oil 583 km (2004)
Ports and harbors:
Omisalj, Ploce, Rijeka, Sibenik, Vukovar (on Danube)
Merchant marine:
total: 73 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 750,579 GRT/1,178,786 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 12, chemical tanker 2, passenger/cargo 25, petroleum tanker 4, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 4
foreign-owned: 1 (Denmark 1)
registered in other countries: 31 (2005)
68 (2004 est.)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 23
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 9 (2004 est.)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2004 est.)
1 (2004 est.)
Military Croatia
Military branches:
Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HKoV), Naval Forces (Hrvatska Ratna Mornarica, HRM), Air and Air Defense Forces (Hrvatsko Ratno Zrakoplovstvo i Protuzrakoplovna Obrana, HRZiPZO)
Military service age and obligation:
18 years of age for compulsory military service, with 6-month service obligation; 16 years of age with consent for voluntary service; Croatian Military Police planning to end conscription in 2005 (December 2004)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 18-49: 1,005,058 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 18-49: 725,914 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:
males: 29,020 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
$620 million (2004)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
2.39% (2002 est.)
Transnational Issues Croatia
Disputes - international:
discussions continue with Bosnia and Herzegovina over several small disputed sections of the boundary; the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Pirin Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains un-ratified and in dispute; as a European Union peripheral state, neighboring Slovenia must conform to the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
IDPs: 12,600 (Croats and Serbs displaced in 1992-1995 war) (2004)
Illicit drugs:
transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe



Sources: The CIA World Fact Book and other public domain Internet sites

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